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Liquibase with Maven

liquibase maven java

Liquibase is a migration management tool for relational databases. It versionalizes schema and data changes in a database; similar to the way Git or SVN works for source code. Thanks to their Maven plugin, Liquibase can be used as a part of a build automation scenario.

Maven Plugin

Let's assume you're using MySQL (PostgreSQL or any other database configuration will be very similar.)

Add liquibase-maven-plugin to your pom.xml (get its latest version in Maven Central):

<project>
  [...]
  <build>
    [...]
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.liquibase</groupId>
        <artifactId>liquibase-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <configuration>
          <changeLogFile>
            ${basedir}/src/main/liquibase/master.xml
          </changeLogFile>
          <driver>com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</driver>
          <url>jdbc:mysql://${mysql.host}:${mysql.port}/${mysql.db}</url>
          <username>${mysql.login}</username>
          <password>${mysql.password}</password>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
</project>

To check that it works, run mvn liquibase:help.

I would recommend you keep database credentials in settings.xml and in their respective profiles. For example:

<settings>
  <profiles>
    <profile>
      <id>production</id>
      <properties>
        <mysql.host>db.example.com</mysql.host>
        <mysql.port>3306</mysql.port>
        <mysql.db>example</mysql.db>
      </properties>
    </profile>
    <profile>
      <id>test</id>
      <properties>
        <mysql.host>test-db.example.com</mysql.host>
        <mysql.port>3306</mysql.port>
        <mysql.db>example-db</mysql.db>
      </properties>
    </profile>
  </profiles>
</settings>

When you run Maven, don't forget to turn on one of the profiles. For example: mvn -Pproduction.

Initial Schema

I assume you already have a database with a schema (tables, triggers, views, etc.) and some data. You should "reverse engineer" it and create an initial schema file for Liquibase. In other words, we should inform Liquibase where we are at the moment, so that it starts to apply changes from this point.

Maven plugin doesn't support it, so you will have to run Liquibase directly. But, it's not that difficult. First, run mvn liquibase:help in order to download all artifacts. Then, replace placeholders with your actual credentials:

$ java -jar \
  ~/.m2/repository/org/liquibase/liquibase-core/3.1.1/liquibase-core-3.1.1.jar \
  --driver=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver \
  --url=jdbc:mysql://db.example.com:3306/example \
  --username=example --password=example \
  generateChangeLog > src/main/liquibase/2014/000-initial-schema.xml

Liquibase will analyze your current database schema and copy its own schema into src/main/liquibase/2014/000-initial-schema.xml.

Master Changeset

Now, create XML master changeset and save it to src/main/liquibase/master.xml:

<databaseChangeLog
  xmlns="http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog
    http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog/dbchangelog-2.0.xsd">
  <includeAll path="src/main/liquibase/2014" />
</databaseChangeLog>

It is an entry point for Liquibase. It starts from this file and loads all other changesets available in src/main/liquibase/2014. They should be either .xml or .sql. I recommend that you use XML mostly because it is easier to maintain and works faster.

Incremental Changesets

Let's create a simple changeset, which adds a new column to an existing table:

<databaseChangeLog xmlns='http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog'
  xmlns:xsi='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance'
  xsi:schemaLocation='http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog
    http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog/dbchangelog-2.0.xsd'>
  <changeSet id="002" author="Yegor">
    <sql>
      ALTER TABLE user ADD COLUMN address VARCHAR(1024);
    </sql>
  </changeSet>
</databaseChangeLog>

We save this file we in src/main/liquibase/2014/002-add-user-address.xml. In big projects, you can name your files by the names of the tickets they are produced in. For example, 045-3432.xml, which means changeset number 45 coming from ticket #3432.

The important thing is to have this numeric prefix in front of file names, in order to sort them correctly. We want changes to be applied in their correct chronological order.

That's it. We're ready to run mvn liquibase:update -Pproduction and our production database will be updated—a new column will be added to the user table.

Also, see how MySQL Maven Plugin can help you to automate integration testing of database-connected classes.